Geostatistics in Geophysics

Fig. 01

Abstract

This case study, focused on a Cretaceous aged Mannville Group pool under water flood, illustrates the benefits of utilizing a quantitative and deterministic geomodelling workflow for reservoir characterization. Geophysical, geological and petrophysical data are integrated into a deterministic static model for simulation. The results of the simulation, in conjunction with pressure transient analysis and material balance calculations, have been used to alter the water injection pattern. The altered water injection has halted the production decline and led to improved recovery with no capital spending.

1. Introduction

Fig. 03The underperforming oil pool, ‘Pool M1’, has nine active producers of which four account for over 75% of the production, and three active injectors (Figure 1). Injection has been concentrated in Well A (Figure 1) in recent years, under the expectation that as the most proximal injector to the best producers it would be the best site for increased injection volumes. Despite being on water support for a number of years, however, reservoir pressure in the Pool has continued to decline and development activity has been stymied by a lack of understanding of reservoir connectivity and continuity.

Figure 1. a) Produced and injected volumes of oil and water as a function of time in Pool M1, injection has been concentrated in Well A for a number of years. b) Well map of Pool M1 showing location of primary injector, Well A, and main producers.

Fig. 04The reservoir geometry is complex and variably continuous due to the dynamic, near shore depositional environment in the area at the time of deposition. There is evidence in core, log and seismic data of shallow marine deposition, barrier island development, storm events, and fluvial/estuarine channels in the area. The interaction of these environments results in stacked reservoir quality sands that pinch out laterally, due to both non-deposition on paleo-highs or erosion and removal, and shale barriers and baffles that are difficult to map.

Despite injection volumes exceeding produced volumes for several years (i.e. a voidage replacement ratio >1 for approximately one-third of the duration of the water-flood) the reservoir pressure remained in decline. Based on the geological maps (created primarily from log data) used to plan the water-injection pattern, there was no indication that the primary injection well was not connected to the main reservoir. The reservoir characterization and simulation study presented herein was initiated to improve understanding of the reservoir and to provide recommendations regarding flood optimization and infill drilling.

2. Geomodelling

Fig. 05 Fig. 06 Fig. 07 Fig. 08
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