This case study, focused on a Cretaceous aged Mannville Group pool under water flood, illustrates the benefits of utilizing a quantitative and deterministic geomodelling workflow for reservoir characterization. Geophysical, geological and petrophysical data are integrated into a deterministic static model for simulation. The results of the simulation, in conjunction with pressure transient analysis and material balance calculations, have been used to alter the water injection pattern. The altered water injection has halted the production decline and led to improved recovery with no capital spending.
The underperforming oil pool, ‘Pool M1’, has nine active producers of which four account for over 75% of the production, and three active injectors (Figure 1). Injection has been concentrated in Well A (Figure 1) in recent years, under the expectation that as the most proximal injector to the best producers it would be the best site for increased injection volumes. Despite being on water support for a number of years, however, reservoir pressure in the Pool has continued to decline and development activity has been stymied by a lack of understanding of reservoir connectivity and continuity.
Figure 1. a) Produced and injected volumes of oil and water as a function of time in Pool M1, injection has been concentrated in Well A for a number of years. b) Well map of Pool M1 showing location of primary injector, Well A, and main producers.
The reservoir geometry is complex and variably continuous due to the dynamic, near shore depositional environment in the area at the time of deposition. There is evidence in core, log and seismic data of shallow marine deposition, barrier island development, storm events, and fluvial/estuarine channels in the area. The interaction of these environments results in stacked reservoir quality sands that pinch out laterally, due to both non-deposition on paleo-highs or erosion and removal, and shale barriers and baffles that are difficult to map.
Despite injection volumes exceeding produced volumes for several years (i.e. a voidage replacement ratio >1 for approximately one-third of the duration of the water-flood) the reservoir pressure remained in decline. Based on the geological maps (created primarily from log data) used to plan the water-injection pattern, there was no indication that the primary injection well was not connected to the main reservoir. The reservoir characterization and simulation study presented herein was initiated to improve understanding of the reservoir and to provide recommendations regarding flood optimization and infill drilling.
Anything new about stirling engines in Cal?
Looking for an update. Everything I find from google news is almost a year old. This is from the stirling engine deal with Southern Edison to build a 500MW plant outside of LA.
What geographical areas are best suited for a solar dish farm?
The southwest region of the United States is ideally suited for this. In fact, a solar farm 100 miles by 100 miles could satisfy 100% of the Americaâs annual electrical needs. Solar technology primarily addresses the peak power demands facing utility companies in the Southwest U.S. and other solar-rich areas.
The cost of living and job markets are better than the national average, but the best job strategy is not to go for averages, but look at your specific skills and experiences, figure out which careers that relates to, and then go to that geographical area:
technology - Silicon Valley
finance - New York
There are other factors to consider. How important are mountains? the ocean? good weather? I have met many midwesterners in Acapulco during the winter, and none ever told me
"I got to get back to Omaha. I just miss those snow covered plains."
4,000 Year Old Greenlander
WASHINGTON (Reuters) â Scientists have sequenced the DNA from four frozen hairs of a Greenlander who died 4,000 years ago in a study they say takes genetic technology into several new realms.
Surprisingly, the long-dead man appears to have originated in Siberia and is unrelated to modern Greenlanders, Morten Rasmussen of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues found.
"This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit," the researchers wrote in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature