Geostatistical reservoir-modeling technologies depart from traditional deterministic modeling methods through consideration of spatial statistics and uncertainties. Geostatistical models typically examine closely the numerous solutions that satisfy the constraints imposed by the data. Using these tools, we can assess the uncertainty in the models, the unknown that inevitably results from never having enough data.
Reservoir characterization overview
Reservoir characterization encompasses all techniques and methods that improve our understanding of the geologic, geochemical, and petrophysical controls of fluid flow. It is a continuous process that begins with the field discovery and all the way through to the last phases of production and abandonment.
Reservoir modeling is the final step in the reservoir-characterization process, and consists of building an upscaled geologic model for input to the fluid-flow numerical simulator. Dynamic reservoir simulation is used to forecast ultimate hydrocarbon recovery on the basis of a given production scheme, or to compare the economics of different recovery methods. Conducting a dynamic flow simulation requires several input data types.
The high-resolution geologic model (HRGM), for example, uses:
- A grid-size specification
- A geometric description of bounding surfaces, faults, and internal bedding geometries
- A 3D distribution of permeability and porosity
- Relative permeability and capillary pressure/saturation functions or tables
Other necessary information could include:
- Fluid pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) properties
- Well locations
- Perforation intervals
- Production indices
- Production or injection rates
- Limiting production or injection pressures
The final step in the reservoir-characterization process, reservoir modeling, consists of building multiple HRGMs, and upscaling and performing flow simulations.
The HRGM integrates multidisciplinary data. The reservoir architecture is built using depth-converted seismic horizons and stratigraphic data, and the geometries and facies of the depositional environments are simulated within this framework, using information from boreholes, cores, seismic lines, and outcrops. Petrophysical properties (porosity φ, permeability k, and water saturation Sw) are distributed within the appropriate facies. The high-resolution models may contain tens of millions of grid cells and require upscaling before flow simulation.
Anything new about stirling engines in Cal?
Looking for an update. Everything I find from google news is almost a year old. This is from the stirling engine deal with Southern Edison to build a 500MW plant outside of LA.
What geographical areas are best suited for a solar dish farm?
The southwest region of the United States is ideally suited for this. In fact, a solar farm 100 miles by 100 miles could satisfy 100% of the Americaâs annual electrical needs. Solar technology primarily addresses the peak power demands facing utility companies in the Southwest U.S. and other solar-rich areas.
The cost of living and job markets are better than the national average, but the best job strategy is not to go for averages, but look at your specific skills and experiences, figure out which careers that relates to, and then go to that geographical area:
technology - Silicon Valley
finance - New York
There are other factors to consider. How important are mountains? the ocean? good weather? I have met many midwesterners in Acapulco during the winter, and none ever told me
"I got to get back to Omaha. I just miss those snow covered plains."
4,000 Year Old Greenlander
WASHINGTON (Reuters) â Scientists have sequenced the DNA from four frozen hairs of a Greenlander who died 4,000 years ago in a study they say takes genetic technology into several new realms.
Surprisingly, the long-dead man appears to have originated in Siberia and is unrelated to modern Greenlanders, Morten Rasmussen of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues found.
"This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit," the researchers wrote in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature