# Geostatistical Modeling

Geostatistical (kriging) models comprise several components: examining the data (distribution, trends, directional components, outliers), calculating the empirical semivariogram or covariance values, fitting a model to the empirical values, generating the matrices of kriging equations, and solving them to obtain a predicted value and the error (uncertainty) associated with it for each location in the output surface.

### Calculate the empirical semivariogram

Kriging, like most interpolation techniques, is built on the basic principle that things that are close to one another are more alike than those farther away from each other (quantified here as spatial autocorrelation). The empirical semivariogram is a means to explore this relationship. Pairs that are close in distance should have a smaller difference than those farther away from one another. The extent to which this assumption is true can be examined in the empirical semivariogram.

### Fit a model

Fitting is done by defining a model (the blue line in the image below) that provides the best fit through the points. That is, you need to find a line such that the weighted squared difference between each point and the line is as small as possible. This is referred to as the weighted least-squares fit. This model quantifies the spatial autocorrelation in your data.

### Create the matrices

The equations for kriging are contained in matrices and vectors that depend on the spatial autocorrelation among the measured sample locations and prediction location. The autocorrelation values come from the semivariogram model. The matrices and vectors determine the kriging weights that are assigned to each measured value in the searching neighborhood.

### Make a prediction

From the kriging weights for the measured values, the software calculates a prediction for the location with the unknown value.

### Anything new about stirling engines in Cal?

Looking for an update. Everything I find from google news is almost a year old. This is from the stirling engine deal with Southern Edison to build a 500MW plant outside of LA.
What geographical areas are best suited for a solar dish farm?
The southwest region of the United States is ideally suited for this. In fact, a solar farm 100 miles by 100 miles could satisfy 100% of the Americaâs annual electrical needs. Solar technology primarily addresses the peak power demands facing utility companies in the Southwest U.S. and other solar-rich areas.

### Depends

by tlbrink

The cost of living and job markets are better than the national average, but the best job strategy is not to go for averages, but look at your specific skills and experiences, figure out which careers that relates to, and then go to that geographical area:
technology - Silicon Valley
finance - New York
There are other factors to consider. How important are mountains? the ocean? good weather? I have met many midwesterners in Acapulco during the winter, and none ever told me
"I got to get back to Omaha. I just miss those snow covered plains."

### 4,000 Year Old Greenlander

by BurpBoohickie

WASHINGTON (Reuters) â Scientists have sequenced the DNA from four frozen hairs of a Greenlander who died 4,000 years ago in a study they say takes genetic technology into several new realms.
Surprisingly, the long-dead man appears to have originated in Siberia and is unrelated to modern Greenlanders, Morten Rasmussen of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues found.
"This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit," the researchers wrote in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature

Solar study: U of M students seek state's sunniest places  — Rick Kupchella's BringMeTheNews
The students are using geographic information systems technology and Lidar data, which is 3D aerial imaging of the Earth's surface, gathered by aircraft with laser-based technology, the students note in a 10-minute video that explains the project (below).

 Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data (Chapman & Hall/CRC Monographs on Statistics & Applied Probability) Book (Chapman and Hall/CRC) Modeling Texas Groundwater Constituents using a Multivariate Geostatistical Model eBooks

#### Popular Q&A

##### Geostatistics method of reserve estimation?

That's a big question, because it depends on alot of things. If I were you, I'd try to get into a course. These tend to be expensive and hard to find though. If you forgo the official certification, you can still access a few geostats courses (including worked examples) on Edumine by paying for a monthly access fee (something like \$40 CDN). You and I are in the same boat, actually! Good luck!

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