Cartographic Terminology

Definitions Provided By: Maps for America - Third Edition accuracy Degree of conformity with a standard. Accuracy relates to the quality of a result and is distinguished from precision which relates to the quality of the operation by which the result is obtained. adjustment Process designed to remove inconsistencies in measured or computed quantities by applying derived corrections to compensate for random or accidental errors. adjustment, land- line Positioning land lines on a map to indicate their true, theoretical, or approximate location relative to the adjacent terrain and culture, by reconciling the information shown on Bureau of Land Management plats and field records with the ground evidence of the location of the lines. adjustment, standard accuracy Adjustment of a survey resulting in values for positions and (or) elevations that comply with the National Map Accuracy Standards. aerotriangulation The process of developing a network of horizontal and or vertical positions from a group of known positions using direct or indirect measurements from aerial photographs and mathematical computations. alidade Instrument, or part of an instrument, for determining direction, either horizontal or vertical . In its simplest form, a peepsight or telescope mounted on a straightedge and used for plotting directions graphically. In such instruments as transits and theodolites, the alidade is the part containing the telescope and its attachments. altimeter Instrument for measuring altitudes or elevations with respect to a reference level, usually mean sea level. The most common type is an aneroid barometer. A radar altimeter determines the height of an aircraft above the terrain by measuring the time required for an electromagnetic pulse to travel from aircraft to the ground and back. azimuth Horizontal direction reckoned clockwise from the meridian plane. backshore Part of a beach that is usually dry and is reached only by the highest tides; by extension, a narrow strip of relatively flat coast bordering the sea. base map See: map, base. bathymetric map See: map, bathymetric bathymetry Science of measuring water depths (usually in the ocean) to determine bottom topography. beach (seabeach) Zone of unconsolidated material that extends landward from the low water line to the place where there is marked change in material or physiographic form, or to the line of permanent vegetation (usually the effective lint of storm waves). bench mark Relatively permanent material object, natural or artificial, bearing a marked point...

Cartographic Design: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives (International Western Geographical Series)
Book (Wiley)

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